Stomach Comparisons

Homo sapiens have one stomach. It digests the foods that have a basic pH, such as meats and animal products. These foods remain in the stomach much longer and are a poor choice to ingest before strenuous physical activity. The acids in our stomach neutralize these basic pH foods so that enzymes can do their work of digestion. Acidic pH foods, such as fruits and vegetables, move more quickly into our small intestine. The basic pH nature of this organ neutralizes the acidic foods to allow these enzymes to fulfill their function.

Birds have three stomachs: the CROP, the PROVENTRICULUS, and the GIZZARD. Birds have no teeth and that is why you see them at roadsides picking up little pieces of rock or grit. This grit goes into the gizzard to act in a grinding action like teeth would. The crop (which most birds have) serves to moisten and lubricate that which has been swallowed – then into the true stomach (proventriculus) where enzymes are added – then into the gizzard. A cycle of contractions force the food back and forth between the latter two stomachs until it is ready to enter the intestines for assimilation. Some birds have two additional blind sacs branching off from their large intestine called CECA. These give additional help (through fermentation) to finish the digestion of heavy cellulose containing food stuffs.

Ruminants, which are a type of ungulate (hoofed), have four stomachs. These animals, when at rest, are always chewing their cud (a regurgitated food bolus). Their diets consist of feeds heavy in fiber – mostly grass, twigs, leaves, etc. This requires a more detailed process to accomplish digestion. Food enters the ¬RUMEN (1st) where bacteria attack it and start the breakdown process. It is then belched up and re-chewed before proceeding into the RETICULUM (2nd) to be further reduced. Then the OMASUM (3rd) works it down even further before it moves into the ABOMASUM (4th). This fourth stomach is the true stomach where enzymes can now go to work to complete the breakdown process.

The various adaptations of the great diversity of living things are most interesting!

(Dave Hanks)

Bighorn ram at rest and chewing his cud

Bighorn ram at rest and chewing his cud

THIS EARTH: Some Thoughts

Van Gogh stated that the creation was a study – a roughed-in sketch. Perhaps that is one reason that his art looks roughed-in. But his view doesn’t seem to be true! The earth is supremely & meticulously put-together; abundantly, extravagantly, and in fine.

While observing the intricacy of form, nothing seems to be ridiculous. The variety of form itself and the multiplicity of forms is mind “boggling”! It seems that anything goes. Form follows function, and function is nature’s only aesthetic consideration. Freedom is the earth’s water and weather, the world’s nourishment freely given, its soil and sap. It definitely has pizzazz!

But only ten percent of the earth’s life forms are still here. Were some forms made with extinction in mind? Created as test models so to speak, to be refined as the adaptation process progresses?

Also, the globe (viewed from afar) may appear smooth but it is anything but smooth. It is jagged and rough. Anything less would be frightfully dull and also very non-utilitarian. Texture is extremely important – both for beauty and for function. The looping, rough inside, nature of intestines is not only necessary for nutrient absorption, but creates more area in a limited space to facilitate the process. Good fishing streams operate on this same principle; and we all would die of thirst if watersheds were smooth and even. In fact there would be no watersheds. .

The tremendous diversity in the earth, points out how important variety is. Why would anyone want to minimize it?

Form and function are important for our physical well-being.

Beauty is important for our mental and emotional well-being.

(Dave Hanks)

The beauty and diversity of REVELSTOKE Park, B.C

The beauty and diversity of REVELSTOKE Park, B.C

Rock Pigeons and Adaptability

Rock Pigeons, also known as Rock Doves, are native to southern Europe where they nest in rocky cliffs. They were introduced to the United States, and as a result, were forced to adapt to new habitats. Lack of maximum prime habitat has limited their choices. We see so many in cities, around farm buildings, or under highway overpasses that it’s easy to think that they are where they want to be. Not so, they have made a major adjustment. Tall buildings are evidently the closest match to cliff sides that many can find. What is also interesting is that Peregrine Falcons (also forced to nest on tall buildings) have adapted in the same manner, but make the most of it by preying upon the pigeons.

Pigeons are a very diverse species. There are 12 sub-species, which includes Homing Pigeons. Many escaped domestic birds have added to this diversity and some individuals are totally white. Pigeons fly with their wings in a V configuration, which aids in their identification at a distance.

This species feeds in flocks on the ground. They also drink continually without tilting their head back. Tilting is characteristic of most birds. Pigeons are monogamous and will breed at any time of the year. Two young, called squabs, are produced at each nesting. The squabs feed by placing their beak into the parent’s throat. The food is drunk. It is called “pigeon milk.” It is a predigested, heavy, milky liquid.

We used to have a pigeon problem before we removed the top half of an old barn. Some high school students liked to bring their prom dates to the barn for an “after dance” dinner. To do that, required a major clean-up of pigeon feces before the old barn was presentable.

Rock Dove Showing off iridescent colors

Showing off iridescent colors

THIS EARTH: Some Thoughts

Van Gogh stated that the creation was a study – a roughed-in sketch. Perhaps that is one reason that his art looks roughed-in. But his view doesn’t seem to be true! The earth is supremely & meticulously put-together; abundantly, extravagantly, and in fine.

While observing the intricacy of form, nothing seems to be ridiculous. The variety of form itself and the multiplicity of forms is mind “boggling”! It seems that anything goes. Form follows function, and function is nature’s only aesthetic consideration. Freedom is the earth’s water and weather, the world’s nourishment freely given, its soil and sap. It definitely has pizzazz!

But only ten percent of the earth’s life forms are still here. Were some forms made with extinction in mind? Created as test models so to speak, to be refined as the adaptation process progresses?

Also, the globe (viewed from afar) may appear smooth but it is anything but smooth. It is jagged and rough. Anything less would be frightfully dull and also very non-utilitarian. Texture is extremely important – both for beauty and for function. The looping, rough inside, nature of intestines is not only necessary for nutrient absorption, but creates more area in a limited space to facilitate the process. Good fishing streams operate on this same principle; and we all would die of thirst if watersheds were smooth and even. In fact there would be no watersheds. .

The tremendous diversity in the earth, points out how important variety is. Why would anyone want to minimize it?

Form and function are important for our physical well-being.

Beauty is important for our mental and emotional well-being.

(The beauty and diversity of REVELSTOKE Park, B.C.)